Adolescent pregnancy in Mexico and stillbirths 1997-2017

Adolescent pregnancy in Mexico and stillbirths 1997-2017

Eduardo Alfonso Hernández Muñoz (1), Elia Lara Lona (1), Claudia Mariana Hernández Robles (1), María del Refugio Mosqueda Martínez (1), Ma. de la Luz Bermúdez Rojas (2)

(1) Universidad de Guanajuato, División de Ciencias de la Salud, Departamento de Medicina y Nutrición; (2) Secretaría de Salud, Centro Estatal de Tamizaje Oportuno, Hospital Materno Infantil.

eduardoa4m@gmail.com

Background
Adolescent pregnancy (AP) occurs in women aged 10 to 19 years old. Each year, around 21 million AP occurs. It is linked to adverse outcomes for the baby and is the leading cause of death among 15 to 19 year-old girls globally(1). Near 95% of AP occur in the developing world(2). Mexico is ranked first in AP among the member countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)(3). From 2010-2017 the average of births of adolescent mothers accounted 18.74% of total births(4). In 2016 the adolescent fertility rate (births per 1,000 women ages 15-19) was 61.4(5). Stillbirths and deaths in the first week of life are 50% higher among babies born to mothers younger than 20 years than among babies born to mothers 20–29 years old(6). Stillbirth is defined by the International classification of diseases(ICD) as death prior to the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a product of conception with a birthweight ≥500g or ≥22 completed weeks of gestation or body length ≥25cm(7). The objective was to determine the number of stillbirths in adolescent pregnancies in Mexico from 1997-2017.

Methods
A descriptive and retrospective study was conducted with the data base from the National Institute of Statistics and Geography from 1997-2017, (https://www.inegi.org.mx/sistemas/olap/Proyectos/bd/continuas/mortalidad/MortalidadFetal.asp?s=est&c=11143&proy=mortfet_mf). The variables described were maternal age, weeks of gestation and the years. The results of the quantitative variables were expressed as rates.

Results
In a 10 year period 383,096 stillbirths were registered in Mexico, 61,795(16.13%) were from AP. The number of stillbirths decreased 35.18% from 1997(22,476) to 2017 (14,567). The stillbirths from AP decreased 27.15% from 1997 (3,539) to 2017 (2,578). The rate of stillbirths of AP has increased from 15.75% in 1997 to 17.7% in 2017.

Conclusions
The rate of stillbirths of AP has increased due to a great reduction in total stillbirths but a lower one in stillbirths from AP. In order to reduce stillbirths, Mexican health and social programs must continue and reinforced focusing on the prevention of adolescent pregnancies.

Ethics statement
No ethics approval required.

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