Italian translation and validation of the Perinatal Grief Scale
Claudia Ravaldi (1,2), Alessandra Bettiol (3), Giada Crescioli (3), Niccolò Lombardi (3), Marco Biffino (4), Gianpaolo Romeo (4), Miriam Levi (4), Roberto Bonaiuti (3), Alfredo Vannacci (1,3)
(1) CiaoLapo, Charity for Healthy Pregnancy and Perinatal Loss Support, Prato, Italy; (2) Department of Health Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; (3) Department of Neurosciences, Psychology, Drug Research and Child Health, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; (4) Department of Prevention, Local Health Unit Tuscany Centre, Florence, Italy
Perinatal Grief Scale (PGS) is a complete instrument used to assess the grief after a perinatal loss: it has good validity and reliability and it could lead to the identification of women at major need for specific support. To date, an Italian version of PGS is missing. Thus, the purpose of this study was to translate the PGS into Italian and to test the validity of the translated scale in a pilot study.
The English version of PGS by Potvin et al. was translated by a professional mother tongue English translator into Italian and modified according to the suggestions of two experts in the fields of gynaecology and psychology. The survey was administered at 3 different times to 16 Italian/English bilingual women who had experienced a perinatal loss, following these steps: (1) translated Italian version (Ita); (2) original English version (Eng) after 10 days; (3) same Italian version (Ita2) after other 10 days. The reproducibility among the three administrations was assessed calculating the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, while concordance was assessed using the Cohen’s kappa coefficient.
Considering the PGS, median score ranged from 74.5 (58.5-94.5) to 78 (64-95), with no significant difference among the three questionnaire administrations (p=0.616). No significant difference emerged among the three administered questionnaires for subscales: p=0.095, 0.410 and 0.410 for “active grief” (AG), “difficulty in coping” (DC) and “despair” (D) scores, respectively. Weighted Cohen’s Kappa was 0.76 for the comparison of Ita vs Eng versions, 0.79 for Ita vs Ita2 versions, and 0.84 for Eng vs Ita2 versions, showing a good to very good concordance among all questionnaire administrations.
This Italian version of the PGS can be used by clinicians to assess Italian women’s responses to stillbirth and perinatal loss, as well as by researchers for research purposes.
According to Italian regulation, for this type of studies the approval by the Ethics Committee is not required (GU n. 76 March 31, 2008); data were collected in keeping with General Data Protection Regulation of European Union (GDPR, EU 2016/679) and written informed consent was obtained from all participants.