The results of pathological studies of the fetus and placenta at different stages of pregnancy

The results of pathological studies of the fetus and placenta at different stages of pregnancy

M. Pailodze, T. Jorbenadze, I. Jiqia, M. Abuladze, N. Sharabidze, M. Iobashvili, N. Khvichia

Women’s Rehabilitation Association, Tbilisi, Georgia

Introduction:
Placenta is the main line between mother and fetus that ensures the growth and development of the fetus and the healthy neonate. Objective: Assessment of morphological changes of fetus and placenta in cases of stillbirth at different gestation period.

Materials and Methods:
During the research were studied 2013-2017 cases, which involved 43 stillborn referred from Tbilisi maternity homes to morphology department. 1. The study includes macro and microscopic research of the stillborn autopsy and evaluation of the placenta. 2. The sections from fetal and placenta tissues stained by hematoxylin and eosin. The results were processed statistically in (SPSS Statistics 23).

Results:
Maternal age varied from 18 to 37 years. The first labor stillbirth was in 65.1% and 34.9% was in second labor. Antenatal mortality of the fetus was 87.8% of cases, intranatal 4,9%, postnatal 7,3% (viability up to 5 minutes.) The maceration was revealed in 93.8%. Different types of hypertrophy of the fetus were revealed in 81% cases. 38.1% of fetuses were female and 59.5% male. In 2,4% of cases the gender could not be established. Causes of death: antenatal hypoxia in 60% and infectious disease in 37.5% of cases; congenital heart faults were seen in 2,5%. Placental pathologies included: in 5.7% cases umbilical cord attached to the membrane, different types of length of umbilical cord was in 27.6 %, umbilical cord vein deverticulosis in 33.3%, extra arteries, hypoplasia was in 16.7% separately. The following was detected in placenta: Different types
of placental dysfunction was in 64.5 %. Inflammatory damage was seen in 16.5% and compensatory transformation in 13% of observed cases.

Conclusion:
The cause of the ante- and intranatal death of the fetus is related to the poor development of maternal surface of placenta, premature maturation, immaturity and inflammatory
damages.

Ethics statement:
NCDC IRB#2018-022 Aim: Assessment of morphological changes of fetus and placenta in cases of stillbirth at different gestation period. The level of risk of this research is minimal. In clinic, after stillbirth medical stuff offer parents to perform morphological study of placenta, provide them with the information about benefits of this research and ask them to give signed consent to examine stillborn baby’s placenta. Benefits: based on the morphological study results will be possible to understand reasons of stillbirth. Research data are confidential.The participation is voluntary.

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